Los efectos negativos sobre la salud de los edulcorantes artificiales podrían tener como mecanismo la destrucción de la flora intestinal

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Los efectos negativos sobre la salud de los edulcorantes artificiales podrían tener como mecanismo la destrucción de la flora intestinal

Notapor Fisio » Lun, 07 Abr 2014, 21:14

Los efectos negativos sobre la salud de los edulcorantes artificiales podrían tener como mecanismo la destrucción de la flora intestinal

Artificial sweetener consumption differentially affects the gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions
Theresa E Cowan, Marie Palmnas, Raylene Reimer, Kendra Ardell, Jaeun Jane Yang, Hans Vogel and Jane Shearer

Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

While there is general agreement on the safety and potential uses of artificial sweeteners, the literature is still lacking a consensus on their long-term effects on gut microbiota and host-microbe interactions. To this end, we examined the impact of chronic sweetener consumption on the gut microbiome in lean and diet-induced obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40) were randomized into two dietary groups; chow (CH, 12% kcal fat) and high fat (HF, 60% kcal fat). Each dietary group was further divided into groups consuming water or artificially sweetened water (0.4g/100mL EQUAL®, aspartame) for 8wk (n=10/treatment). Animals consumed food and fluids ad libitum. CH and HF animals showed a difference in weight gain and body fat, with the HF rats becoming obese and glucose intolerant (OGTT). Analysis of insulin tolerance (ITT) demonstrated sweetener consumption to reduce insulin sensitivity in both CH and HF. Analysis of the gut microbiome showed marked differences between both diet and fluid treatment. Total Eubacteria was reduced by HF, but maintained with sweetener consumption. Reductions in Lactobacillus were observed in CH sweetener and both HF groups. Bacteroides was reduced in both HF groups but not CH sweetener compared to water controls. In conclusion, results show sweetener to alter host-microbe interactions in both chow and diet-induced obese animals.


http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/meeti ... acts/224.7
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Re: Los efectos negativos sobre la salud de los edulcorantes artificiales podrían ser matando la flora intestinal?

Notapor Fisio » Lun, 07 Abr 2014, 21:17

Splenda alters gut microflora and increases intestinal p-glycoprotein and cytochrome p-450 in male rats.
Abou-Donia MB1, El-Masry EM, Abdel-Rahman AA, McLendon RE, Schiffman SS.
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Abstract

Splenda is comprised of the high-potency artificial sweetener sucralose (1.1%) and the fillers maltodextrin and glucose. Splenda was administered by oral gavage at 100, 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg to male Sprague-Dawley rats for 12-wk, during which fecal samples were collected weekly for bacterial analysis and measurement of fecal pH. After 12-wk, half of the animals from each treatment group were sacrificed to determine the intestinal expression of the membrane efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) metabolism system by Western blot. The remaining animals were allowed to recover for an additional 12-wk, and further assessments of fecal microflora, fecal pH, and expression of P-gp and CYP were determined. At the end of the 12-wk treatment period, the numbers of total anaerobes, bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, Bacteroides, clostridia, and total aerobic bacteria were significantly decreased; however, there was no significant treatment effect on enterobacteria. Splenda also increased fecal pH and enhanced the expression of P-gp by 2.43-fold, CYP3A4 by 2.51-fold, and CYP2D1 by 3.49-fold. Following the 12-wk recovery period, only the total anaerobes and bifidobacteria remained significantly depressed, whereas pH values, P-gp, and CYP3A4 and CYP2D1 remained elevated. These changes occurred at Splenda dosages that contained sucralose at 1.1-11 mg/kg (the US FDA Acceptable Daily Intake for sucralose is 5 mg/kg). Evidence indicates that a 12-wk administration of Splenda exerted numerous adverse effects, including (1) reduction in beneficial fecal microflora, (2) increased fecal pH, and (3) enhanced expression levels of P-gp, CYP3A4, and CYP2D1, which are known to limit the bioavailability of orally administered drugs.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18800291
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