http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20226994Consuming eggs for breakfast influences plasma glucose and ghrelin, while reducing energy intake during the next 24 hours in adult men.
Ratliff J1, Leite JO, de Ogburn R, Puglisi MJ, VanHeest J, Fernandez ML.
We hypothesized that consuming eggs for breakfast would significantly lower postprandial satiety and energy intake throughout the day. Using a crossover design, 21 men, 20 to 70 years old, consumed 2 isoenergetic test breakfasts, in a random order separated by 1 week. The macronutrient composition of the test breakfasts were as follows: (EGG, % CHO/fat/protein = 22:55:23) and (BAGEL, % CHO/fat/protein = 72:12:16). Fasting blood samples were drawn at baseline before the test breakfast and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes after breakfast. After 180 minutes, subjects were given a buffet lunch and asked to eat until satisfied. Subjects filled out Visual Analog Scales (VAS) during each blood draw and recorded food intake the days before and after the test breakfasts. Plasma glucose, insulin, and appetite hormones were analyzed at each time point. Subjects consumed fewer kilocalories after the EGG breakfast compared with the BAGEL breakfast (P< .01). In addition, subjects consumed more kilocalories in the 24-hour period after the BAGEL compared with the EGG breakfast (P < .05). Based on VAS, subjects were hungrier and less satisfied 3 hours after the BAGEL breakfast compared with the EGG breakfast (P < .01). Participants had higher plasma glucose area under the curve (P < .05) as well as an increased ghrelin and insulin area under the curve with BAGEL (P < .05). These findings suggest that consumption of eggs for breakfast results in less variation of plasma glucose and insulin, a suppressed ghrelin response, and reduced energy intake.
Egg intake has been shown to promote the formation of large LDL, in addition to shifting individuals from the LDL pattern B to pattern A, which is less atherogenic
http://journals.lww.com/co-clinicalnutr ... sma.4.aspxDietary cholesterol provided by eggs and plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations
Fernandez, Maria Luz
Purpose of review: Extensive research has not clearly established a link between egg consumption and risk for coronary heart disease. The effects of egg intake on plasma lipids and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) atherogenicity in healthy populations need to be addressed.
Recent findings: The lack of connection between heart disease and egg intake could partially be explained by the fact that dietary cholesterol increases the concentrations of both circulating LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in those individuals who experience an increase in plasma cholesterol following egg consumption (hyperresponders). It is also important to note that 70% of the population experiences a mild increase or no alterations in plasma cholesterol concentrations when challenged with high amounts of dietary cholesterol (hyporesponders). Egg intake has been shown to promote the formation of large LDL, in addition to shifting individuals from the LDL pattern B to pattern A, which is less atherogenic. Eggs are also good sources of antioxidants known to protect the eye; therefore, increased plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in individuals consuming eggs are also of interest, especially in those populations susceptible to developing macular degeneration and eye cataracts.
Summary: For these reasons, dietary recommendations aimed at restricting egg consumption should not be generalized to include all individuals. We need to acknowledge that diverse healthy populations experience no risk in developing coronary heart disease by increasing their intake of cholesterol but, in contrast, they may have multiple beneficial effects by the inclusion of eggs in their regular diet.
Egg yolk favor the formation of larger LDL and HDL leading to an increase in plasma lutein and zeaxanthin
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19369056Eggs distinctly modulate plasma carotenoid and lipoprotein subclasses in adult men following a carbohydrate-restricted diet.
Mutungi G1, Waters D, Ratliff J, Puglisi M, Clark RM, Volek JS, Fernandez ML.
We previously reported that carbohydrate restriction (CR) (10-15% en) during a weight loss intervention lowered plasma triglycerides (TG) by 45% in male subjects (P<.001). However, those subjects with a higher intake of cholesterol provided by eggs (640 mg additional cholesterol, EGG group) had higher concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (P<.0001) than the individuals consuming lower amounts (0 mg of additional cholesterol, SUB group). The objectives of the present study were to evaluate whether CR and egg intake (1) modulate circulating carotenoids and (2) affect the concentrations of plasma apolipoproteins (apo), lipoprotein size and subfraction distribution. CR decreased the number of large and medium very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol subclasses (P<.001), while small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were reduced (P<.001). In agreement with these observations, a decrease in apo B (P<.01) was observed. In addition, CR resulted in a 133% increase in apo C-II and a 65% decrease in apo C-III (P<.0001). Although an increase of the larger LDL subclass was observed for all subjects, the EGG group had a greater increase (P<.05). The EGG group also presented a higher number of large HDL particles (P<.01) compared to the SUB group. Regarding carotenoids, CR resulted in no changes in dietary or plasma alpha- or beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin, while there was a significant reduction in both dietary and plasma lycopene (P<.001). In contrast, dietary lutein and zeaxanthin were increased during the intervention (P<.05). However, only those subjects from the EGG group presented higher concentrations of these two carotenoids in plasma, which were correlated with the higher concentrations of large LDL observed in the EGG group. These results indicate that CR favorably alters VLDL metabolism and apolipoprotein concentrations, while the components of the egg yolk favor the formation of larger LDL and HDL leading to an increase in plasma lutein and zeaxanthin.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23128450Egg intake improves carotenoid status by increasing plasma HDL cholesterol in adults with metabolic syndrome.
Blesso CN1, Andersen CJ, Bolling BW, Fernandez ML.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with reductions in plasma lutein and zeaxanthin, along with altered composition of their lipoprotein transporters which may affect disease risk. Egg yolk intake has been demonstrated to increase plasma lutein and zeaxanthin in other populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of whole egg feeding on plasma and lipoprotein carotenoids in participants with MetS. Participants consumed 3 whole eggs per day (EGG, n = 20) or the equivalent amount of yolk-free egg substitute (SUB, n = 17), as part of a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) for 12 weeks. Post-intervention, the EGG group had significant increases in plasma lutein (+21%), zeaxanthin (+48%), and β-carotene (+24%), while the SUB group had increases in plasma β-carotene (+55%) only. Significant enrichment of isolated HDL and LDL fractions in lutein (+20% HDL, +9% LDL) and zeaxanthin (+57% HDL, +46% LDL) was observed in the EGG group after 12 weeks. Increases in the proportion of plasma carotenoids carried by HDL was seen for lutein (P < 0.01), zeaxanthin (P < 0.01), β-cryptoxanthin (P < 0.05), and lycopene (P < 0.05) for all participants after the 12 week intervention. Daily intake of 3 whole eggs, as part of a CRD, increased both plasma and lipoprotein lutein and zeaxanthin. Egg yolk may represent an important food source to improve plasma carotenoid status in a population at high risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.
Mejora LDL, HDL, glucosa
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23021013Whole egg consumption improves lipoprotein profiles and insulin sensitivity to a greater extent than yolk-free egg substitute in individuals with metabolic syndrome.
Blesso CN1, Andersen CJ, Barona J, Volek JS, Fernandez ML.
We investigated if daily egg feeding, along with carbohydrate restriction, would alter lipoprotein metabolism and influence atherogenic lipoprotein profiles and insulin resistance in men and women with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
In a randomized, single-blind, parallel design, participants consumed either 3 whole eggs/day (EGG, n=20) or the equivalent amount of yolk-free egg substitute (SUB, n=17), as part of a moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet (25%-30% energy) for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins (apos), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activities were assessed at baseline and week 12. Lipoprotein particle concentrations and sizes were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Atherogenic dyslipidemia improved for all individuals as evidenced by reductions in plasma triglycerides, apoC-III, apoE, oxLDL, VLDL particle diameter, large VDL, total IDL, small LDL, and medium LDL particles (P<0.05). Furthermore, there were increases in HDL-cholesterol, large LDL and large HDL particles (P<0.05) for all individuals. However, there were greater increases in HDL-cholesterol and large HDL particles, and reductions in total VLDL and medium VLDL particles for those consuming EGG compared to SUB (P<0.05). Plasma insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were reduced, while LCAT activity, and both HDL and LDL diameters increased over time in the EGG group only (P<0.05).
Incorporating daily whole egg intake into a moderately carbohydrate-restricted diet provides further improvements in the atherogenic lipoprotein profile and in insulin resistance in individuals with MetS.
No aumenta riesgo coronario
http://www.bmj.com/content/346/bmj.e8539Egg consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Objective To investigate and quantify the potential dose-response association between egg consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.
Design Dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
Data sources PubMed and Embase prior to June 2012 and references of relevant original papers and review articles.
Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Prospective cohort studies with relative risks and 95% confidence intervals of coronary heart disease or stroke for three or more categories of egg consumption.
Results Eight articles with 17 reports (nine for coronary heart disease, eight for stroke) were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis (3 081 269 person years and 5847 incident cases for coronary heart disease, and 4 148 095 person years and 7579 incident cases for stroke). No evidence of a curve linear association was seen between egg consumption and risk of coronary heart disease or stroke (P=0.67 and P=0.27 for non-linearity, respectively). The summary relative risk of coronary heart disease for an increase of one egg consumed per day was 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.15; P=0.88 for linear trend) without heterogeneity among studies (P=0.97, I2=0%). For stroke, the combined relative risk for an increase of one egg consumed per day was 0.91 (0.81 to 1.02; P=0.10 for linear trend) without heterogeneity among studies (P=0.46, I2=0%). In a subgroup analysis of diabetic populations, the relative risk of coronary heart disease comparing the highest with the lowest egg consumption was 1.54 (1.14 to 2.09; P=0.01). In addition, people with higher egg consumption had a 25% (0.57 to 0.99; P=0.04) lower risk of developing hemorrhagic stroke.
Conclusions Higher consumption of eggs (up to one egg per day) is not associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease or stroke. The increased risk of coronary heart disease among diabetic patients and reduced risk of hemorrhagic stroke associated with higher egg consumption in subgroup analyses warrant further studies.