Mejoras a nivel cognitivo
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17828627Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals.
McMorris T1, Mielcarz G, Harris RC, Swain JP, Howard A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation on the cognitive performance of elderly people. Participants were divided into two groups, which were tested on random number generation, forward and backward number and spatial recall, and long-term memory tasks to establish a baseline level. Group 1 (n = 15) were given 5 g four times a day of placebo for 1 week, followed by the same dosage of creatine for the second week. Group 2 (n = 17) were given placebo both weeks. Participants were retested at the end of each week. Results showed a significant effect of creatine supplementation on all tasks except backward number recall. It was concluded that creatine supplementation aids cognition in the elderly.
Mejoras a nivel cognitivo
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21394604Use of creatine in the elderly and evidence for effects on cognitive function in young and old.
Rawson ES1, Venezia AC.
1Department of Exercise Science, 131 CEH, Bloomsburg University, Bloomsburg, PA 17815, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The ingestion of the dietary supplement creatine (about 20 g/day for 5 days or about 2 g/day for 30 days) results in increased skeletal muscle creatine and phosphocreatine. Subsequently, the performance of high-intensity exercise tasks, which rely heavily on the creatine-phosphocreatine energy system, is enhanced. The well documented benefits of creatine supplementation in young adults, including increased lean body mass, increased strength, and enhanced fatigue resistance are particularly important to older adults. With aging and reduced physical activity, there are decreases in muscle creatine, muscle mass, bone density, and strength. However, there is evidence that creatine ingestion may reverse these changes, and subsequently improve activities of daily living. Several groups have demonstrated that in older adults, short-term high-dose creatine supplementation, independent of exercise training, increases body mass, enhances fatigue resistance, increases muscle strength, and improves the performance of activities of daily living. Similarly, in older adults, concurrent creatine supplementation and resistance training increase lean body mass, enhance fatigue resistance, increase muscle strength, and improve performance of activities of daily living to a greater extent than resistance training alone. Additionally, creatine supplementation plus resistance training results in a greater increase in bone mineral density than resistance training alone. Higher brain creatine is associated with improved neuropsychological performance, and recently, creatine supplementation has been shown to increase brain creatine and phosphocreatine. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that cognitive processing, that is either experimentally (following sleep deprivation) or naturally (due to aging) impaired, can be improved with creatine supplementation. Creatine is an inexpensive and safe dietary supplement that has both peripheral and central effects. The benefits afforded to older adults through creatine ingestion are substantial, can improve quality of life, and ultimately may reduce the disease burden associated with sarcopenia and cognitive dysfunction.
Incluso sin ejercicio protege de atrofia muscular, fatiga, masa ósea y fuerza (my god si fuera un fármaco).
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24304199Creatine supplementation: can it improve quality of life in the elderly without associated resistance training?
Moon A, Heywood L, Rutherford S, Cobbold C1.
Ageing is associated with decreased muscle mass, strength, power and function, and reduction in bone density and mineral content, leading to reduced independence and increased risk of falls. Creatine supplementation is reported to improve muscular strength and performance with training in younger athletes, and therefore could benefit older individuals.
This review critically appraises the current literature on whether creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance and function, body composition, bone mineral density and content in older adults without the addition of resistance training, and thus determines whether creatine supplementation can lead to an improved lifestyle for the sedentary elderly population.
There is conflicting evidence regarding the usefulness of creatine supplementation in older subjects. Generally, however, creatine supplementation, without associated resistance training, seems to enhance muscular strength, power and endurance, increase lean body mass (LBM) and improve the functional capacity of the elderly. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that increased muscle mass due to creatine supplementation can result in increased local bone density. It appears that the effect of creatine supplementation is more beneficial in larger muscles and less effective in smaller muscles, however there are exceptions. The mechanism by which creatine supplementation works requires further research, however it is likely that the effects of creatine are related to creatine kinase activity, providing enhanced energy production for greater muscular contraction.
These data indicate that creatine supplementation without associated training in the elderly could potentially delay atrophy of muscle mass, improve endurance and strength, and increase bone strength, and thus may be a safe therapeutic strategy to help decrease loss in functional performance of everyday tasks.
Estado de ánimo y falta de sueño
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16416332Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol.
McMorris T1, Harris RC, Swain J, Corbett J, Collard K, Dyson RJ, Dye L, Hodgson C, Draper N.
Sleep deprivation has a negative effect on cognitive and psychomotor performance and mood state, partially due to decreases in creatine levels in the brain. Therefore, creatine supplementation should lessen the negative effects of sleep deprivation.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol.
Subjects were divided into a creatine group (n=10) and a placebo group (n=9). They took 5 g of creatine monohydrate or a placebo, dependent on their group, four times a time a day for 7 days, immediately prior to the experiment. The study was double blind. Subjects undertook tests of random movement generation (RMG), verbal and spatial recall, choice reaction time, static balance and mood state pre-test (0 h), after 6, 12 and 24 h of sleep deprivation, with intermittent exercise. They were tested for plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol at 0 and 24 h.
At 24 h, the creatine group demonstrated significantly less change in performance from 0 h (delta) in RMG, choice reaction time, balance and mood state. There were no significant differences between groups in plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations were significantly higher at 24 h than 0 h, but cortisol were lower.
Following 24-h sleep deprivation, creatine supplementation had a positive effect on mood state and tasks that place a heavy stress on the prefrontal cortex.
Depresión en mujeres
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2286 ... t=AbstractA randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral creatine monohydrate augmentation for enhanced response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in women with major depressive disorder.
Lyoo IK1, Yoon S, Kim TS, Hwang J, Kim JE, Won W, Bae S, Renshaw PF.
Antidepressants targeting monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, despite their immediate effects at the synaptic level, usually require several weeks of administration to achieve clinical efficacy. The authors propose a strategy of adding creatine monohydrate (creatine) to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. Such augmentation may lead to a more rapid onset of antidepressant effects and a greater treatment response, potentially by restoring brain bioenergetics at the cellular level.
Fifty-two women with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and randomly assigned to receive escitalopram in addition to either creatine (5 g/day, N=25) or placebo (N=27). Efficacy was primarily assessed by changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score.
In comparison to the placebo augmentation group, patients receiving creatine augmentation showed significantly greater improvements in HAM-D score, as early as week 2 of treatment. This differential improvement favoring creatine was maintained at weeks 4 and 8. There were no differences between treatment groups in the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment prematurely (creatine: N=8, 32.0%; placebo: N=5, 18.5%) or in the overall frequency of all reported adverse events (creatine: 36 events; placebo: 45 events).
The current study suggests that creatine augmentation of SSRI treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach that exhibits more rapid and efficacious responses in women with major depressive disorder.