Cacao

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Cacao

Notapor Fisio » Lun, 27 Oct 2014, 18:54

Recomiendo nibs, o encapsularlo o tomar una cucharada con agua en ayunas aparte de la cocina con cacao.

Cacao y cerebro


Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults

http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/vao ... .3850.html

Antiestrés

http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.a ... ID=1851435

Mejora estado de ánimo y cognitiva

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364814

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942640

Aumento de flujo sanguíneo a materia gris

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16794461



Cardiovascular

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24982813

http://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/60/3/827

Agregación plaquetaria y activación vasomotora

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16794456

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17984375

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12944249

Efectividad posiblemente similar a aspirina

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12297125

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10871557

Mejora disfunción endotelial en fumadores, obesos, no fumadores y patología arterial

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16198843

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903881

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21903367

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24274771

Arteriopatía periférica

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24990275

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24531123

Mejora resistencia a insulina, vasodilatación y tensión arterial

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16027246

Síndrome metabólico

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jf500333y

Tensión arterial

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1 ... 2/abstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22537244

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20823377

Algunos no encuentran efecto

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18400709

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19583878

Reduce oxidación LDL

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11684527

Función endotelial postglicemia

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22851734

Hipoglicémico e hipotensivo

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22689050

Inhibe NfKappaB

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21824756

Fatiga crónica

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21092175

Protección de radiación UV

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19735513

Incremento HDL

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20968113

Antiasmático (en cerdos)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25004832


Inflamación intestinal

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24559192
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Re: Cacao

Notapor Fit » Lun, 27 Oct 2014, 20:49

Por qué en ayunas?


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Re: Cacao

Notapor Fisio » Lun, 27 Oct 2014, 22:42

Para que no interfiera con cosas que pueden anular su efecto o disponibilidad.
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Re: Cacao

Notapor Fit » Mar, 28 Oct 2014, 07:11

Fisio escribió:Para que no interfiera con cosas que pueden anular su efecto o disponibilidad.
Lo de tomarlo en agua suena a rayos pero ok, lo entiendo. Yo seguiré usándolo en la cocina :P


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Re: Cacao

Notapor Fisio » Mié, 29 Oct 2014, 13:08

Aumento de flujo sanguíneo a materia gris

The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people.
Francis ST1, Head K, Morris PG, Macdonald IA.
Author information
Abstract

Flavanols are the main flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate, and can be especially abundant in certain cocoas. Research over the past decade has identified flavanols as showing diverse beneficial physiologic and antioxidant effects, particularly in context of vascular function. The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging based on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast to explore the effect of flavanols on the human brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure BOLD responses to a cognitive task in 16 healthy young subjects. The data presented show an increase in the BOLD signal intensity in response to a cognitive task following ingestion of flavanol-rich cocoa (5 days of 150 mg of cocoa flavanols). This may arise either as a result of altered neuronal activity, or a change in vascular responsiveness, or both--the net effect then being dependent on which of the two effects is dominant. No significant effects were evident in behavioral reaction times, switch cost, and heart rate after consumption of this moderate dose of cocoa flavanols. A pilot study evaluated the relationship between cerebral blood flow and a single acute dose (450 mg flavanols) of flavanol-rich cocoa and showed that flavanol-rich cocoa can increase the cerebral blood flow to gray matter, suggesting the potential of cocoa flavanols for treatment of vascular impairment, including dementia and strokes, and thus for maintaining cardiovascular health.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16794461


Decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women
Chronic consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.
Wang-Polagruto JF1, Villablanca AC, Polagruto JA, Lee L, Holt RR, Schrader HR, Ensunsa JL, Steinberg FM, Schmitz HH, Keen CL.
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Abstract

Endothelial dysfunction characterizes many disease states including subclinical atherosclerosis. The consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa and cocoa-based products has been shown to improve endothelial function in both compromised and otherwise normal, healthy individuals when administered either acutely or over a period of several days, or weeks. Women experience increased risk for cardiovascular disease after menopause, which can be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Whether a flavanol-rich cocoa-based product can improve endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women is not known. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether chronic dietary administration of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular health in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. Thirty-two postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women were randomly assigned to consume a high-flavanol cocoa beverage (high cocoa flavanols (CF)--446 mg of total flavanols), or a low-flavanol cocoa beverage (low CF--43 mg of total flavanols) for 6 weeks in a double-blind study (n=16 per group). Endothelial function was determined by brachial artery-reactive hyperemia. Plasma was analyzed for lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone), total nitrate/nitrite, activation of cellular adhesion markers (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, E-Selectin, P-Selectin), and platelet function and reactivity. Changes in these plasma markers were then correlated to brachial reactivity. Brachial artery hyperemic blood flow increased significantly by 76% (P<0.05 vs. baseline) after the 6-week cocoa intervention in the high CF group, compared with 32% in the low CF cocoa group (P=ns vs. baseline). The 2.4-fold increase in hyperemic blood flow with high CF cocoa closely correlated (r2=0.8) with a significant decrease (11%) in plasma levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1. Similar responses were not observed after chronic use of low CF. There were no significant differences between high and low CF in other biochemical markers and parameters measured. This study is the first to identify beneficial vascular effects of flavanol-rich cocoa consumption in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women. In addition, our results suggest that reductions in plasma soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 after chronic consumption of a flavanol-rich cocoa may be mechanistically linked to improved vascular reactivity.


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16794456
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Re: Cacao

Notapor Fisio » Mié, 29 Oct 2014, 15:09

Arteriopatía periférica

Dark chocolate acutely improves walking autonomy in patients with peripheral artery disease.
Loffredo L1, Perri L1, Catasca E1, Pignatelli P1, Brancorsini M1, Nocella C1, De Falco E2, Bartimoccia S1, Frati G3, Carnevale R1, Violi F1.
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Abstract
BACKGROUND:

NOX-2, the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, has a key role in the formation of reactive oxidant species and is implicated in impairing flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Dark chocolate exerts artery dilatation via down-regulating NOX2-mediated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dark chocolate improves walking autonomy in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients via an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism.
METHODS AND RESULTS:

FMD, serum levels of isoprostanes, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and sNOX2-dp, a marker of blood NOX2 activity, maximal walking distance (MWD) and maximal walking time (MWT) were studied in 20 PAD patients (14 males and 6 females, mean age: 69±9 years) randomly allocated to 40 g of dark chocolate (>85% cocoa) or 40 g of milk chocolate (≤35% cocoa) in a single blind, cross-over design. The above variables were assessed at baseline and 2 hours after chocolate ingestion. Dark chocolate intake significantly increased MWD (+11%; P<0.001), MWT (+15%; P<0.001), serum NOx (+57%; P<0.001) and decreased serum isoprostanes (-23%; P=0.01) and sNOX2-dp (-37%; P<0.001); no changes of the above variables were observed after milk chocolate intake. Serum epicatechin and its methylated metabolite significantly increased only after dark chocolate ingestion. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Δ of MWD was independently associated with Δ of MWT (P<0.001) and Δ of NOx (P=0.018). In vitro study demonstrated that HUVEC incubated with a mixture of polyphenols significantly increased nitric oxide (P<0.001) and decreased E-selectin (P<0.001) and VCAM1 (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION:

In PAD patients dark but not milk chocolate acutely improves walking autonomy with a mechanism possibly related to an oxidative stress-mediated mechanism involving NOX2 regulation.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24990275



Contraste

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24531123


Antiasmático (cerdos)


Unsweetened natural cocoa has anti-asthmatic potential.
Awortwe C1, Asiedu-Gyekye IJ2, Nkansah E2, Adjei S3.
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Abstract

Unsweetened natural cocoa powder is enriched with nutraceutical abundance of anti-asthmatic compounds theobromine and theophylline. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9&#x0025; theobromine and 0.21&#x0025; caffeine. Anecdotal reports indicate that regular consumption of unsweetened natural cocoa powder (UNCP), a common practice in Ghana, West Africa, has the potential to reduce the tendency of asthmatic episodes. In the present paper we studied the effect of regular ingestion of aqueous extract of UNCP on hematological and histopathological changes that occur in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pigs. OVA-sensitized guinea pigs were challenged with aerosolized OVA 1 hour after ingestion of 300 mg/kg (low dose) or 600 mg/kg (high dose) of UNCP for 35 consecutive days. Histopathological and haematological changes in the OVA-sensitized guinea pigs were evaluated. Both negative and positive controls with distilled water and prednisolone, respectively, were used. OVA-sensitized guinea pigs demonstrated concentration-independent reduction in immune response to aerosolized OVA. There were no histo-architectural changes in the bronchiolar smooth muscles of the treated groups. Unsweetened natural cocoa powder has potential anti-asthmatic properties when administered orally at the doses tested.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25004832

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Re: Cacao

Notapor Fisio » Mié, 29 Oct 2014, 15:20

Función vascular en jóvenes sanos

Central arterial hemodynamic effects of dark chocolate ingestion in young healthy people: a randomized and controlled trial.
Pereira T1, Maldonado J2, Laranjeiro M1, Coutinho R1, Cardoso E1, Andrade I1, Conde J1.
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Abstract

Introduction. The aim of this study was to assess the vascular benefits of dark chocolate in healthy and young individuals. Methods. A randomized and controlled trial was carried out involving 60 healthy volunteers, randomized into two groups: control group (CG; n = 30) and intervention group (IG; n = 30). The IG ingested a daily dosage of 10 g of dark chocolate (>75% cocoa) for a month. Blood pressure (BP), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), arterial stiffness index (ASI), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), and pulse wave analysis (PWA) were assessed at baseline and one week after the one-month intervention period. Results. Arterial function improved after intervention in the IG, with PWV decreasing from 6.13 ± 0.41 m/s to 5.83 ± 0.53 m/s (P = 0.02), with no significant differences observed in the CG. A significant decrease in ASI (0.16 ± 0.01 to 0.13 ± 0.01; P < 0.001) and AiX (-15.88 ± 10.75 to -22.57 ± 11.16; P = 0.07) was also depicted for the IG. Endothelial function improved in the IG, with the FMD increasing 9.31% after the 1-month intervention (P < 0.001), with no significant variation in the CG. Conclusion. The daily ingestion of 10 g dark chocolate (>75% cocoa) during a month significantly improves vascular function in young and healthy individuals.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24982813





Reduce beta amiloide

Cocoa extracts reduce oligomerization of amyloid-β: implications for cognitive improvement in Alzheimer's disease.
Wang J1, Varghese M2, Ono K3, Yamada M3, Levine S2, Tzavaras N4, Gong B2, Hurst WJ5, Blitzer RD4, Pasinetti GM1.
Author information
Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by pathological aggregates of amyloid peptide-β (Aβ) and tau protein. Currently available therapies mediate AD symptoms without modifying disease progression. Polyphenol-rich diets are reported to reduce the risk for AD.
OBJECTIVE:

In the present study, we investigated the AD disease-modifying effects of cocoa, a rich source of flavanols, which are a class of polyphenols. We hypothesized that cocoa extracts interfere with amyloid-β oligomerization to prevent synaptic deficits.
METHODS:

We tested the effects of three different cocoa extracts, viz. Natural, Dutched, and Lavado extracts, on Aβ42 and Aβ40 oligomerization, using photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins technique. To assess the effects of cocoa extracts on synaptic function, we measured long term potentiation in mouse brain hippocampal slices exposed to oligomeric Aβ.
RESULTS:

Our results indicate that cocoa extracts are effective in preventing the oligomerization of Aβ, with Lavado extract being most effective. Lavado extract, but not Dutched extract, was effective in restoring the long term potentiation response reduced by oligomeric Aβ.
CONCLUSION:

Our findings indicate that cocoa extracts have multiple disease-modifying properties in AD and present a promising route of therapeutic and/or preventative initiatives.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24957018

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Re: Cacao

Notapor Fisio » Mié, 29 Oct 2014, 15:37

Anti estrés

Dark chocolate intake buffers stress reactivity in humans

ABSTRACT
Objectives: We investigated the effect of acute intake of dark chocolate on psychobiological stress reactivity in humans.
Background: Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate consumption protects from cardiovascular mortality but underlying mechanisms are not fully understood.

Methods: Healthy men aged between 20 and 50 years (mean±SD: 35.7±8.8) were assigned to a single intake of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (N=31) or 50 g of identically looking flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (N=34). Two hours after chocolate ingestion, both groups underwent an acute standardized psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We measured the stress hormones cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) prior to chocolate ingestion, before and several times after stress cessation. Plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin were also determined. As a psychological stress measure we assessed cognitive stress appraisal.

Results: The dark chocolate group showed a significantly blunted reactivity of the peripheral adrenal gland hormones cortisol (F=6.6, p=.001) and epinephrine (F=4.1, p=.025) as compared to the placebo group. Blunted reactivity of both these stress hormones related to higher plasma levels of epicatechin (p’s≤.036). There were no group differences in measures relating to central stress reactivity, i.e. the pituitary stress hormone ACTH, the sympathetic neurotransmitter and stress hormone norepinephrine, and cognitive stress appraisal. Potential confounders were controlled.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that acute flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake buffers endocrine stress reactivity on the level of the adrenal gland. This suggests a peripheral stress-protective effect of dark chocolate consumption.


Inflamación intestinal

Green tea, cocoa, and red wine polyphenols moderately modulate intestinal inflammation and do not increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) production.
Nicod N1, Chiva-Blanch G, Giordano E, Dávalos A, Parker RS, Visioli F.
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Abstract

Although polyphenols are often merely perceived as antioxidants, their biological activities are manifold and include anti-inflammatory actions. A new area of research on polyphenols and health concerns their putative role in cholesterol metabolism, in particular, their high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c)-raising potential. Indeed, some human studies showed that administration of polyphenol-rich foods such as cocoa, green tea, and extra virgin olive oil modulate and increase HDL-c concentrations. This study assessed the effects of polyphenols on intestinal inflammation, using the physiologically relevant Caco-2 Transwell model and using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to trigger inflammation. This study also investigated the mechanisms of actions behind the proposed HDL-c-increasing effects of polyphenols. The data suggest that polyphenols (at least those from red wine, cocoa, and green tea) administered at a dietary dose moderately modulate intestinal inflammation but do not increase cholesterol secretion by intestinal cells or enhance HDL functionality. Nutraceuticals and supplements provide pharmanutritional doses that might, conversely, produce beneficial effects.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24559192

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Re: Cacao

Notapor Fisio » Mié, 29 Oct 2014, 17:09

El cacao impide la cristalización del ácido úrico

Theobromine inhibits uric Acid crystallization. A potential application in the treatment of uric Acid nephrolithiasis.
Grases F, Rodriguez A, Costa-Bauza A.
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Abstract
PURPOSE:

To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system.

RESULTS:

The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments.

CONCLUSIONS:

Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25333633
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Re: Cacao

Notapor Fit » Mié, 29 Oct 2014, 23:48

Menos mal que son todo ventajas porque tomo cacao cada día, je.


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