Curcumin: Its potent anti-inflammatory effects and more specifically its ability to target multiple inflammatory pathways, which include NF-KappaB, COX2, STAT3 and high levels of CRP, Prostaglandins and TNF-alpha make it a particularly valuable anti-tumor agent of which Guo et al. observed in a recent study that it will induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by regulation the expression of IkappaBalpha, c-Jun and androgen receptor (Guo. 2013)
Genistein - Just like curcumin, genistein acts on NF-KappaB (Adjakly. 2013). In addition it will upregulate a protein called miR-574- 3p that will have cancer cells "kill themselves" (go into apopotosis; Chiyomaru. 2013). In addition scientists have found genistein to support the efficiacy of Cabazitaxel which is used for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
Pomegranate - Pomegranate extracts or rather its ingredients, i.e. ellagic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin and punicic acic, have been shown to inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells (NCI. 2013). A clinical trial by Pantuck et al. (2006) was also able to show that the time it takes for the PSA levels, an albeit debatable marker of prostate cancer risk, to double decreased significantly, when the subjects, men with rising PSA after surgery or radiotherapy, were treated with 8 ounces of pomegranate juice daily (Wonderful variety, 570 mg total polyphenol gallic acid equivalents) until disease progression. Unfortunately, a more recent study by Stenner-Liewen et al. (2013) could not confirm these effects.
Crucíferas - While general vegetable intake is already associated with a -39% reduced risk of developing extraprostatic prostate cancer (cancer, eating tons of cruciferous vegetable, it was the intake of broccoli and cauliflower that made the biggest impact in a 2007 study by Kirsh et al. As it is usually the case the evidence is yet ambiguous. In a 2002 review of the evidence, Kristal, et al. found that of the six studies they could clearly interpret, only three reported statistically significant reduced risks (P < 0.05), while one reported a borderline significant reduced risk (P = 0.06). Against that background Verhoeven et al. are right, when they say: " Further epidemiological research should separate the anticarcinogenic effect of brassica vegetables from the effect of vegetables in general" (Verhoeven. 1996). More recently, Joseph et al. found that the existing differences in the epidemiological data may be due to genetic polymorphisms due to which only men with a certain genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 will benefit from eating tons of cruciferous veggies (Joseph. 2004).
Green tea - Green tea is good for everything, right? Well unless it's not loaded with toxic molecules (see previous SuppVersity article) this may in fact be right. Convincing evidence from human trials is albeit scarce. What we do have are rodent studies like the ones that were conducted with TRAMP mice, which model closely mirrors the pathogenesis of human prostate cancer. In these mice EGCG, one of the main catechins in green tea, decreased the proliferation of prostate cancer cells and reduced the PSA levels. Scientists believe that these effects are mainly mediated by the effects EGCG has on the growth promoting proteins ERK1/2. Unfortunately, the same rodent studies also suggest that it is probably too late for many of you to start drinking green tea, now, because said beneficial effects are only observed in young, not in old TRAMP mice (Donald. 2012).
Coffee is for the ladies, too! Studies show significantly reduced risks of breast cancer with 5+ cups of coffee. Tee and cacao help, as well | more
Coffee - Obviously I am biased, when it comes to coffee. I still hope you believe me when I say that drinking 5+ cups of coffee per day has been associated with significantly reduced risk of prostate cancer in what is probably the most large-scale meta-analysis of the topic today. In their meta-analsis of 12 peer-reviewed case-control studies, Lu et al. calculated a 4% risk reduction for Europeans who consumed five or more cups of coffee and Americans who consumed 4 or more regular cups of coffee (equ. to approximately 400-500mg of caffeine). Moreover, the scientist found "a significant inverse association in all categories of prostate cancer except Gleason <7 grade" in both the "fixed-effects model" and the "random-effects model" (Lu. 2014). Wilson et al. also report an inverse association between coffee consumption and the incidence of highly malignant prostate cancer (Wilson. 2013). This means that drinking coffee is not only going to reduce your overall risk of developing prostate and other cancers (Geybels. 2013), it will also increase your chance that in the unfortunate case you still develop cancer, it's going to be a benign and treatable form of prostate cancer.
Vitamin D - Believe it or not: There are things vitamin D3 cannot do! One of this things is to protect you prostate cancer. That's the prerogative of active vitamin D aka calciferol. In rodent studies and studies on human cell lines calciferol and multiple analogs of active vitamin D have shown to be promising drugs for prostate cancer protection, though (Tokar. 2005). Since simply popping tons of vitamin D3 is (luckily) without effect on the levels of calciferol (otherwise you would run the risk of being calcified from the currently prevalent abuse of vitamin D3 supplements), using vitamin D3 is less effective, but not useless. In 2010, for example, Woo et al. observed that the time it took for the PSA levels of prostate cancer patients to double was significantly reduced, when the subjects received 2,000 IU of vitamin D3 per day (Woo. 2005) - an effect of which previous in vitro studies suggest that it could be due to the local conversion of D3 to active vitamin D in prostate cancer cells (Tokar. 2005).
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